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The Toyota Supra was a sports car produced by Toyota. Production began in 1979. The Supra was built and designed on the legacy of Toyota's former super sportscar, the 2000GT. It bore the common chassis code of "A".
Toyota Celica Supra Mk 1 (1979-1981)
The first generation Supra was based largely upon the Toyota Celica liftback, but was longer by 5.1 inches (doors and rear section same length as celica but rear panels differ). Most importantly, the Celica's 4-cylinder engine was replaced by an inline 6. Toyota's original plan for the Supra at this time was to make it a competitor to the very popular Datsun (now Nissan) 240Z; it, in some degree, succeded.
The 1979 (1978 Japan market) Mk 1 was originally equipped with a 110 hp (82 kW) single overhead cam inline-6 motor, the 2.6 L 4M-E (MA46 chassis code) (which was the first Toyota engine with electronic fuel injection). In 1981, the Supra received the 2.8 L 5M-E, (MA47 Chassis code) making 116 hp (87 kW) and 145 ft·lbf (197 N·m) of torque. It was also available in Japan with the 2.0 L M-EU engine MA45 chassis code) and possibly the M-TEU turbo.
As with all subsequent versions of the Supra, the Mk 1 was equipped with either 5 speed manual (W50) or 4 speed automatic transmission, and it also came standard with 4-wheel disc brakes, but retained the T series solid rear axle configuration of the celica in the MA45 version and a larger F series (and optional LSD) In the MA46 and MA47
1981 was the last year that a Celica Supra could be purchased equipped with an 8-track stereo.
Toyota Celica Supra Mk 2 (1982-1986)
Though the Celica name was still used, in its second generation the Supra stood more apart from the Celica. The Mk 2, with its all-new design, quickly became a success in the US where it was awarded the Import Car of the Year by Motor Trend. It also made Car and Driver magazine's Ten Best list for 1983 and 1984.
In the US, the engine was changed from the SOHC 2.8 L 5M-E to the DOHC 2.8 L 5M-GE. The MK2 came in 2 flavors: the P-type (Performance type) and the L-type (Luxury type). They were differentiated by the available options, tire/wheel combo, and body trim: the P-type had fiberglass fender flares over the wheel wells, while the L-type had simple smaller flares molded into the metal above the wheel wells. Typically the P-type came with either 4.10:1 or 4.30:1 rear gearing, while the L-type came with 3.727:1 rear gearing. Both were offered with either the W58 manual 5-speed transmission or the A43DL (1982 only)/A43DE (1983-1986.5) 4-speed automatic transmission. The P-type came with 14X7 wheels and 225/60/14 tires, and the L-type came with 14x5.5 wheels and 195/70/14 tires. As a complement to the superb engine, the Celica Supra's suspension was specially designed by Lotus.
Around the world, the Mk 2 came with a variety of other engines. Some models sent to countries (like Sweden, Switzerland and Australia) retained the Mk 1's 5M-E (In Australia, only availability of petrol was leaded of that time), while in Japan the MK2 (MA-63) offered the option of the turbocharged SOHC M-TE engine or the 2 litre twin turbo 1G-GTE (GA61). Also in Japan, where the Mk 2 was badged the Celica XX, some came with the 2.0 L 1G-GEU, since taxes were less on lower-displacement engines. Typically, non-US 5M-GE's made around 170 hp (127 kW), while the US-market version made around 145 hp (108 kW), since the exhaust system was more restrictive to comply with emissions requirements. 1984 and 1985 US models had around 165 hp (123 kW) due to 9.2:1 compression vs the former 8.8:1.
1985 was the end of the Mk 2, but delays in the manufacture of the Mk 3 led to leftover 1985 Mk 2s being offered for sale in the first half of 1986. These were just 1985 models with minor cosmetic changes, as well as the addition of the rear-mounted third brakelight on the hatch.
A popular engine replacement for the Mk 2 is the 6M-GEU, which is a 190 hp (142 kW) 3.0 L version of the 5M-GE. This engine was never available in the Mk 2, but was offered in the JDM-only Crown and Chaser models.
Some possible chassis codes are: MA60, MA61, MA63, MA67, GA60, GA61. (After the body code L & R represented Left hand or Right hand Drive i.e., the MA61L is Left hand Drive, whereas the MA61R is Right hand Drive)
Toyota Supra Mk 3 (1986-1992)
In the middle of 1986, Toyota was ready to release its next version of the Supra. The bonds between the Celica and the Supra were cut; now they were two completely different kind of models. The Celica changed to front wheel drive (FWD), while the Supra kept its rear wheel drive (RWD). Though the Mk 2 and Mk 3 had similar designs, the engine was a more powerful version than the earlier 2.8 L and 3.0 L engine with two versions: one with a CT-26 turbo (the 7M-GTE) and one without (the 7M-GE). The non-turbo 7M-GE models came standard with the W58 manual transmission, and the 7M-GTE came standard with the R154. Both were available with an optional automatic transmission, the A340E. During the 1989 year, the car received new tail lights, front bumper, badging and side trim amongst other features.
1988 Supra Turbo-A In 1988 the Turbo-A model was introduced, it was a special design aimed at winning the Group-A touring car championships around the world. There were only 500 Turbo-As ever made. The Turbo-A was a special 7M-GTEU with 267 PS (263 hp/196 kW), making it the fastest Japanese road car until the R32-GTR was introduced. Turbo-As were only ever sold in black, all had leather interior, hard top and only used MAP sensors. (turbo-a.net)
The third-generation Supra represented a great deal of new technology. In 1986, Supras were already equipped with ABS, TEMS (Toyota Electronically Modulated Suspension). By 1990, airbags became standard.
Non-US models also came with two other engines: the 2.5 L 280 hp (209 kW) twin-turbo 1JZ-GTE and 2.0 L 210 hp (157 kW) twin-turbo 1G-GTE.
The US turbo model can propel itself 0-60 in just over 6 seconds.
Some possible chassis codes are: MA70, MA71, JZA70, GA70.
Toyota Supra Mk 4 (1993-1998/2002)
With the fourth generation of the Supra, Toyota took a big leap in the direction of a more super sportscar. The new Supra was redesigned from the ground up and featured two completely new engines: naturally aspirated 2JZ-GE 220hp and 210lb-ft of torque, or a twin turbocharged 2JZ-GTE making a whopping 320hp, 315 lb-ft of torque. The turbocharged variant could achieve 0–60 in 4.6 seconds and 1/4 mile in just under 13.1 seconds at over 106 mph.
The MKIV Supra's twin turbos actually operated in sequential mode instead of twin mode as the name states. The way that the sequential mode operated was the first turbo starts spooling at low rpms & as the rpms increased, the second turbo joins in. This helped in reducing turbo lag. Twin mode in other cars operated by having the two turbos spool up at the same time at the upper rpm range. For this generation, the Supra received a new 6-speed Getrag transmission on the Turbo models.
In 1998, Toyota ceased to export the cars from Japan, and they stopped production altogether in 2002 due to a decline in sales. Toyota has hinted at a possible revival of the Supra in 2006/2007 pointing at different directions. There is indication that Toyota will base the future Supra on the next generation Altezza, which will be powered by a Twin-Turbocharged V6 Engine, while other speculate that the future Supra will become the next flagship model for the company, knocking the Toyota Century off the flagship spot.